How to make stained glass window

glass window
How to make stained glass window
tained glass window
The necessary equipment and supplies for the production of stained glass with their hands.
– Stained glass;
– tin, brand POS-61;
– glass cutter filler with a brass handle;
– a special oil for glass cutters (substitutes – engine oil, kerosene)
– curling breaking glass;
– soldering iron, 100 Watt.
– Grinder type «Kristall ‘;
– copper foil (black) 5.16 mm, another name – folia, from the English. Foil;
– flux or soldering grease, soldering acid;
– patina (copper or black)
– T – shaped brass profile 4x4x4 mm
– brass rods with a diameter of 3-4 mm;
– safety glasses;
– a pair of scissors for cutting templates;
– small scissors (you can nail);
– small scissors on metal;
– small nails, a hammer;
– wooden slats 1×2 cm
– hard brush;
– scotch wide, transparent and masking.
– writing paper. The more transparent the better. But tracing.
– Whatman;
– glue stick.
Sketch of stained glass.
The basis of the sketch of the stained-glass window photo taken real maple leaf.
Since this work is done by a pupil, drawing lines were as simple as possible.
General rules for construction of the sketch lines:
– The larger figure in stained glass T-shaped intersections, so it is more durable;
– If the stained-glass joints are planned broad, it is better not to make long, narrow elements with very sharp edges.
Firstly, broad folia still closes substantial part of the element surface,
and secondly, not having much experience easy to overheat the glass cracking.
– If you plan to narrow stained glass and high, are provided in the sketch smooth line from edge to edge, for stiffeners.
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Sketch of stained glass is printed in full size in two copies, in view of the fields (at least 2 cm).
Each item is numbered, and one sketch is cut along the lines of special scissors for templates.
These scissors have three blades. Central blade automatically removes a strip of paper width of 1.27 mm ,.
In the future, this is offset by the thickness of foil strip.
If this is your first job, it is better to cut with scissors templates
since no experience in cutting and turning of the glass can be easily mistaken.
The cut item is slightly larger than required, and it will give the opportunity to correct errors arising in the turning.
The surface is sealed with a working sketch wide transparent adhesive tape to protect the image from accidental contact with water there.
Next, your sketch in the fields masking tape sticks to the working surface.
The working surface must be perfectly flat. Then, on the future border of your stained glass nailed wooden slats.
Since starting to make stained-glass window from the corner, gradually moving down and sideways, mark the first side of the angle strips.
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The choice of glass.
Modern stained glass American, European and Chinese production features a large variety of textures, colors and shades. The paper is better to use American and European glass. Some companies that sell glass, sell well and its fragments. Pay attention to them. They cost much cheaper, and will help to diversify your work hues.
When choosing a glass for the manufacture of stained glass with your hands, try to take into account, as will your illuminated stained glass as a blend between the texture and color of the glass.
Production element.
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Carved pattern element №28 pasted on a sheet of glass.
The sides of the glass sheet has a different texture. Cut glass simpler smoother side.
This is usually “wrong side” of your stained glass.
Cut along the contour of the glass. Glass cutter should be kept in your hand like a pen, at 45?
to the glass surface. No need to put pressure on the glass cutter struggling. The force required is small.
Try to keep a glass cutter smoothly. Cutter wheel must be perpendicular to the glass surface.
If it is rejected, glass stone chip go at an angle.
Cut glass should be edge-to-edge piece without interruption. Completing the line, reduce the pressure on the glass cutter, or get chipped.
Lines must be smooth, without corners and s-shaped segments.
If you want to cut the element with curved side – break the arc for a few relatively straight lines.
The steeper the curve, the more of these segments must be greater.
The slots are machined under the glass drops on grinder
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After you have spent a cutting roller on the glass, it formed microcracks.
Lightly tapping the handle end of the glass cutter (brass!) On the cut line on the reverse side,
It leads to an increase in these cracks and split window.
If a small piece of glass, this operation can be done in your hands.
If you need to cut a large piece – put a sheet of glass on the table.
In order to break off small or narrow fragment, use tongs breaking glass.
The cut piece of glass thus processed on the grinding machine.
When grinding, always wear safety goggles!
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The purpose of this treatment – the ultimate refinement in size, plus the creation of the rough surface of the edge of the glass needed for better fixation foil.
Working part of the sander is grinding head.
The contact surface of the head and in the process the glass must be continually wetted by water. Otherwise, the abrasive surface is deteriorating rapidly.
Grinding heads are of different diameters and grit: fine, standard and rough.
Standard and coarse heads allow you to quickly process the glass edge, but their use small chips are inevitable.
They are invisible, if you use a wide foliyu that they will cover.
If you plan to make a thin seam of 2-3 mm, it is advisable to use a fine grinding head.
Polishing glass, periodically apply it to your sketch by checking the appropriate size.
Please note that after the winding element size will increase slightly.
The winding element of the copper foil.
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Each stained-glass element turns foliey. Folia is a copper strip of varying width,
coated on one side with black or colorless adhesive. Depending on the color used patina, or selected
“Black” or “copper” folia. This is important in the manufacture of clear glass.
To folia adhered well to glass, it must be wiped dry and, if necessary, degrease.
Try to keep the folded foil edges are the same width.
Small irregularities can be corrected with a knife or razor blade, but you can not avoid large imbalances.
This not only affects the aesthetics, but also on the strength of the stained glass.
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After wrapping foliyu need to smooth over the entire surface. This can be done using ordinary plastic handle.
Ready secure element on your sketch with the help of small nails.
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Trying to achieve the thin seams, do not try to adjust the details of each other “with a crunch.” The elements must lie freely.
Otherwise, during soldering glass may crack even under a mild heating.
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Further, all the seams are treated with flux. It removes oxides from the surface of copper and tin contributes to liquefaction.Each flux is good in its own way, but I like German soldering grease. He applied to the joints with a brush.
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If from the moment of winding until the soldering surface of the copper strongly oxidized, soldering fat can shift with solder acid.
Brazing joints.
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In the manufacture of stained glass by Tiffany technique, using tin, brand POS-61.
The tip of the rod of tin is placed on the seam and the top is pressed against the heated soldering iron to operating temperature. In this position, soldering is carried out along the seam.
It should not be long to keep the soldering iron in one place – you can overheat foliyu and glass.
The height of the seam, you define yourself. With the amount of tin need to be careful. His excesses of course you can “round up” on the glass, but if there is too much tin, the glass may crack.
Before soldering, “clean”, cover all seams a small amount of tin.
Defects soldering fix immediately.
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Since the contour of the stained glass is framed in brass profile, you must leave a certain length nepropayannoy seams around the perimeter.
Once all the elements of stained glass are soldered to each other on both sides, made of stained glass frame.
For this takes U-shaped profile: 4x4x4 mm or 8h4h8 mm, depending on the stained fabric.
It provides stained glass sufficiently rigid frame.
Profile is cut into pieces of equal length of each side of the stained glass.
Then the cloth edge is inserted into the profile and soldered to it at the point where the profile and joints.
For this purpose, the seams along the edges left stained with a minimal amount of tin to them.
Designated contact profile segments also propaivayutsya. Further, if necessary, the profile is coated with tin.
After the soldering stained glass should be washed under running water, using a stiff brush and a degreaser such as “Fairy”.
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Application patina.
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Patina is applied to dry, clean and fat-free seams. Work better with gloves.
The overflow from the main tank to the work a small amount of patina.
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courtesy: filosofyfree
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